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    2.   Risk Codes
        Chemical data sheets available in many countries now contain codes for certain "risk phrases", shown as R23, R45 etc. These risk phrase codes have the following meanings:

       

       R1

       Explosive when dry. 干燥時易爆。

       R2

       Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other source of ignition. 受沖擊、摩擦、著火或其他引燃源有爆炸危險。

       R3

       Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition.
       受沖擊、摩擦、著火或其他引燃源有極高爆炸危險。

       R4

       Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds. 生成極敏感的爆炸性金屬化合物。

       R5

       Heating may cause an explosion. 受熱可能引起爆炸。

       R6

       Explosive with or without contact with air.極容易爆炸。

       R7

       May cause fire. 可能引起火災。

       R8

       Contact with combustible material may cause fire. 與可燃物料接觸可能引起火災。

       R9

       Explosive when mixed with combustible material. 與可燃物料混合有爆炸性。

       R10

       Flammable. 易燃。

       R11

       Highly flammable. 高度易燃。

       R12

       Extremely flammable. 極度易燃。

       R13

       Extremely flammable liquefied gas 極度易燃的液化氣體。

       R14

       Reacts violently with water. 遇水反應劇烈。

       R15

       Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases. 遇水釋放極易燃燒的氣體。

       R16

       Explosive when mixed with oxidizing substances. 與氧化性物質混合有爆炸性。

       R17

       Spontaneously flammable in air. 在空氣中可自燃。

       R18

       In use, may form inflammable/explosive vapour-air mixture. 使用時可能產生易燃易爆的蒸汽-空氣混合物。

       R19

       May form explosive peroxides. 可能生成爆炸性過氧化物。

       R20

       Harmful by inhalation. 吸入有害。

       R21

       Harmful in contact with skin. 與皮膚接觸有害。

       R22

       Harmful if swallowed. 吞食有害。

       R23

       Toxic by inhalation. 吸入有毒。

       R24

       Toxic in contact with skin. 與皮膚接觸有毒。

       R25

       Toxic if swallowed. 吞食有毒。

       R26

       Very toxic by inhalation. 吸入有極高毒性。

       R27

       Very toxic in contact with skin. 與皮膚接觸有極高毒性。

       R28

       Very toxic if swallowed. 吞食有極高毒性。

       R29

       Contact with water liberates toxic gas. 遇水釋放有毒氣體。

       R30

       Can become highly flammable in use. 使用中高度易燃。

       R31

       Contact with acids liberates toxic gas. 遇酸釋放有毒氣體。

       R32

       Contact with acid liberates very toxic gas. 與酸接觸釋放極高毒性氣體。

       R33

       Danger of cumulative effects. 有累積效應的危險品。

       R34

       Causes burns. 引起灼傷。

       R35

       Causes severe burns. 引起嚴重灼傷。

       R36

       Irritating to eyes. 刺激眼睛。

       R37

       Irritating to respiratory system. 刺激呼吸系統。

       R38

       Irritating to skin. 刺激皮膚。

       R39

       Danger of very serious irreversible effects. 有極嚴重的不可逆后果的危險品。

       R40

       Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect. 少數報道有致癌后果。

       R41

       Risk of serious damage to the eyes. 對眼睛有嚴重傷害。

       R42

       May cause sensitization by inhalation. 吸入可能致敏。

       R43

       May cause sensitization by skin contact. 與皮膚接觸可能致敏。

       R44

       Risk of explosion if heated under confinement. 密閉加熱有爆炸危險。

       R45

       May cause cancer. 可能致癌。

       R46

       May cause heritable genetic damage. 可能引起遺傳性基因損害。

       R47

       May cause birth defects 可能引起胎兒缺陷。

       R48

       Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure. 長期接觸嚴重危害健康。

       R49

       May cause cancer by inhalation. 吸入可能致癌。

       R50

       Very toxic to aquatic organisms. 對水生生物有極高毒性。

       R51

       Toxic to aquatic organisms. 對水生生物有毒。

       R52

       Harmful to aquatic organisms. 對水生生物有害。

       R53

       May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. 可能對水體環境產生長期不良影響。

       R54

       Toxic to flora. 對植物有毒。

       R55

       Toxic to fauna. 對動物有毒。

       R56

       Toxic to soil organisms. 對土壤生物有毒。

       R57

       Toxic to bees. 對蜂類有毒。

       R58

       May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment. 可能對環境產生長期不良影響。

       R59

       Dangerous to the ozone layer. 對臭氧層有危害。

       R60

       May impair fertility. 可能損害生育能力。

       R61

       May cause harm to the unborn child. 可能對胎兒造成傷害。

       R62

       Risk of impaired fertility. 有損害生育能力的危險。

       R63

       Possible risk of harm to the unborn child. 可能有對胎兒造成傷害的危險。

       R64

       May cause harm to breastfed babies. 可能對哺乳期嬰兒造成傷害。

       R65

       Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed. 吞食可能造成肺部損傷。

       R66

       Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking. 長期接觸可能引起皮膚干裂。

       R67

       Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. 蒸汽可能引起困倦和眩暈。

       R68

       Possible risk of irreversible effects. 可能有不可逆后果的危險。

       R20/21:

       Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin. 吸入及皮膚接觸有害。

       R20/21/22:

       Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. 吸入、皮膚接觸及吞食有害。

       R20/22:

       Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed. 吸入及吞食有害。

       R21/22:

       Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed. 皮膚接觸及吞食有害。

       R23/24/25:

       Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. 吸入、皮膚接觸及吞食有毒。

       R23/25:

       Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed. 吸入及吞食有毒。

       R26/27/28:

       Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. 吸入、皮膚接觸及吞食有極高毒性。

       R26/28:

       Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed. 吸入及吞食有極高毒性。

       R36/37:

       Irritating to eyes and respiratory system. 刺激眼睛和呼吸系統。

       R36/37/38:

       Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. 刺激眼睛、呼吸系統和皮膚。

       R36/38:

       Irritating to eyes and skin. 刺激眼睛和皮膚。

       R37/38:

       Irritating to respiratory system and skin. 刺激呼吸系統和皮膚。

       R42/43:

       May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact. 吸入及皮膚接觸可能致敏。

       R48/22:

       Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed. 吞食長期接觸嚴重危害健康。

       R50/53:

       Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
       對水生生物有極高毒性,可能對水體環境產生長期不良影響。

       R51/53:

       Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
       對水生生物有毒,可能對水體環境產生長期不良影響。

       R52/53:  

       Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
       對水生生物有害,可能對水體環境產生長期不良影響。



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